February 19, 2018

Colorado Court of Appeals: GPS Data from Ankle Monitor Properly Admitted to Show Defendant’s Location at Time of Robbery

The Colorado Court of Appeals issued its opinion in People v. Campbell on Thursday, January 25, 2018.

Constitutional Law—Fourth Amendment—Illegal Search and Seizure—Reasonable Suspicion—Reasonable Expectation of Privacy—GPS Data—Identification.

Campbell’s vehicle was pulled over and Campbell was arrested on suspicion of burglary. Officers searched Campbell and found he had on an ankle monitor, which he was wearing at the request of a private bail bondsman. A detective later requested and received the global positioning system (GPS) data from the company owning the ankle monitor. The GPS data revealed that, within the month before the victim’s home was broken into, Campbell had been at the location of two other homes when they were burglarized. The GPS data also placed Campbell at the victim’s house at the time of the break-in. Campbell was convicted of two counts of second degree burglary, one count of attempted second-degree burglary, and three counts of criminal mischief.

On appeal, Campbell contended that the trial court erred in denying his motion to suppress evidence obtained as a result of an illegal seizure and search of his person. The officers had reasonable suspicion to stop Campbell based on his violation of traffic laws. Further, the officers had probable cause to believe defendant was committing the felony of vehicular eluding, and therefore constitutionally arrested and searched him. The trial court did not err in denying Campbell’s motion to suppress evidence obtained as a result of his seizure and search.

Campbell also contended that the trial court erred in denying his motion to suppress GPS data obtained from the ankle monitor. The court of appeals concluded, as a matter of first impression, that defendant did not have a reasonable expectation of privacy in the GPS location data generated by the ankle monitor under the U.S. or Colorado Constitutions. Defendant voluntarily disclosed the data, which was transmitted to and collected by a third party that voluntarily gave the data to law enforcement officials. Further, the trial court did not err in admitting the GPS evidence without first conducting a hearing pursuant to People v. Shreck, 22 P. 3d 68 (Colo. 2001), to assess its reliability, because GPS technology is prevalent and widely regarded as reliable.

Campbell additionally contended that the trial court erred in denying his motion to suppress the victim’s identification because the identification was unduly suggestive and unreliable. The victim had the opportunity to see the intruder for one or two seconds in a well-lit area while the two men were approximately 10 feet apart before Campbell ran out of the house. Although the victim was not wearing contact lenses or eyeglasses, he felt he was able to see the intruder sufficiently to identify him. The victim immediately called 911 and described Campbell. The police brought Campbell to the scene handcuffed in the back of a police vehicle for a one-on-one identification. The identification occurred less than an hour after the victim saw the intruder. Although the lineup was suggestive, it was reliable under the totality of the circumstances.

The judgment was affirmed.

Summary provided courtesy of Colorado Lawyer.

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