The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals issued its opinion in Harvey v. Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation on Thursday, August 13, 2015.
Ryan Harvey and other plaintiffs filed a complaint in Utah state court against the Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation, seeking a declaration regarding the authority of the Tribe over non-Indian businesses operating on certain categories of land. Plaintiffs also alleged three individuals affiliated with the Uintah Tribal Employment Rights Office had harassed and extorted Plaintiffs. Defendants filed a motion to dismiss, arguing that service of process had been insufficient, the state court lacked jurisdiction in the absence of a valid waiver of tribal immunity, the Tribe and its officers were immune from suit but were indispensable parties, and Plaintiffs failed to exhaust administrative remedies in tribal court. Following a hearing on the motion to dismiss, the state court ordered further briefing regarding whether the defendants’ motion constituted a general appearance. The court granted Plaintiffs’ motion to amend its complaint to add defendants.
Defendants filed a notice of removal in the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah, stating that certain defendants consented to removal and the others would consent. All except one eventually consented to removal. Plaintiffs then filed a motion to remand, arguing the initial defendants waived their right to remove by litigating in state court, removal was untimely, the defendants had not unanimously consented to removal, and the federal court lacked subject matter jurisdiction. The district court granted the motion to remand, finding the initial defendants waived their right to consent to removal because they manifested an intent to litigate in state court, and the unanimity requirement could not be met.
The Tenth Circuit first noted that 28 U.S.C. § 1447(d) specifies that a district court order remanding to state court is “not reviewable on appeal or otherwise.” Following Supreme Court precedent establishing that some orders are reviewable despite the statute’s plain language, the Tenth Circuit noted that § 1447(d) has been interpreted to preclude review only for lack of subject matter jurisdiction or defects in removal procedure. The Tenth Circuit commented that although the circuits are split on whether remand based on waiver is reviewable, it would only address remand for lack of unanimity. The Tenth Circuit evaluated whether the remand was based on lack of unanimity and found that it was. The Tenth Circuit declined to review the remand order.
The Tenth Circuit granted appellees’ motion to dismiss and dismissed the appeal.