April 29, 2017

Experience Interactive “People in Crisis” Exercise at the Criminal Law Spring Update

Often, people come to lawyers during a period of crisis, looking to their lawyer for assistance and comfort. Perhaps they are newly unemployed, or have lost a loved one, or are going through a contentious divorce. Or perhaps the client is experiencing poverty and all its attendant problems. While lawyers may be familiar intellectually with the statistics of poverty, many have not actually experienced it.

This year’s Criminal Law Spring Update is a unique interactive simulation of clients in crisis. Each participant will assume the role of a family member with limited resources. Some participants will be newly unemployed, some will have been recently deserted by the “breadwinner,” and some will be senior citizens living on fixed incomes or raising grandchildren. The participants will be tasked with providing for basic necessities and shelter with limited resources.

This program is designed to provide perspective to attorneys whose clients may be experiencing similar situations. The exercise will let participants experience some of the emotional stresses and frustrations created by having limited resources, as well as the difficult choices people with few resources feel they may need to make in order to survive. The program will begin with an introduction, move into the simulation, and then have a debriefing period in which participants will have the opportunity to share their experiences and talk about what they have learned during the exercise. The afternoon will be a more traditional CLE program, where we will discuss bond and sentencing issues, and how poverty affects these issues.

Register now for this unique opportunity to experience the effects of poverty on legal issues from the client’s perspective. Call (303) 860-0608 to register or click the links below.

 

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CLE Program: Criminal Law Spring Update – LIVE ONLY!

This CLE presentation will occur on May 2, 2017, at the Ralph L. Carr Judicial Center (2 E. 14th Ave. in Denver), from 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m. Register for the live program here. You may also call (303) 860-0608 to register.

When Your Client’s Kid Needs Help: Juvenile Criminal Justice for Every Attorney

pow6qw4fks1i955Every lawyer has had the experience of their client asking questions about an area of law in which they don’t practice. A tax lawyer may field questions about her client’s DUI matter. An immigration attorney may receive a question from his client about preparing an estate plan. A domestic relations attorney may hear questions about her client’s business. Regardless of an attorney’s area of expertise, clients will ask legal questions and expect informed answers.

So what do you do when your client tells you his kid might be in trouble with the law? Because few matters are more important to a parent than the well-being of his or her child, knowing what to say and when to recommend that your client seek a juvenile defense attorney is vital.

From the legalization of marijuana in Colorado to the perils of social media, kids live in a different world than a generation ago. These days, it seems there are more and more ways for kids to find themselves in trouble with the law, not because of criminal intent, but because the children or their families do not understand what behavior the law criminalizes. The pitfalls kids face in the criminal system and school disciplinary settings can be extraordinary, and the consequences can be far-reaching—even lifelong.

In seeking to protect the client’s children from lifelong consequences, it is imperative and ethically required for an attorney to fully understand the laws applicable to the matter, or to find someone who specializes in juvenile law to provide guidance. The Criminal Code and Children’s Code are complex, and children are frequently treated differently than adults in regard to criminal matters.

On Monday, December 12, 2016, attorney Lara Marks Baker will deliver a one-hour breakfast presentation on guiding your client through juvenile criminal justice issues. This program is a great way to learn about what to do when your clients need help with their kids. Lara will highlight the federal and state laws which are frequently implicated in matters of juvenile justice, and when to signal a client that criminal or disciplinary matters may be forthcoming. Register by calling (303) 860-0608 or by clicking the links below.

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CLE Program: When Your Client’s Kid Needs Help

This CLE presentation will occur on December 12, 2016, at the CBA-CLE offices (1900 Grant Street, Third Floor), from 8:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Register for the live program here or register for the webcast here. You may also call (303) 860-0608 to register.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here: MP3Video OnDemand.

Privileges and Confidentiality in the Attorney-Client Relationship

EthicsConfidentiality is one of the cornerstones of the attorney-client relationship. It allows clients to feel comfortable discussing sensitive issues with their attorney without fear of disclosure. Colorado Rule of Professional Conduct 1.6 provides, “A lawyer shall not reveal information relating to the representation of a client unless the client gives informed consent, the disclosure is impliedly authorized in order to carry out the representation, or the disclosure is permitted [in certain enumerated circumstances].” The counterpoint to this is the privilege that protects attorney-client communications. The attorney-client privilege in Colorado is governed by C.R.S. § 13-90-107(1)(b), which states, “An attorney shall not be examined without the consent of his client as to any communication made by the client to him or his advice given thereon in the course of professional employment.”

These seemingly straight-forward rules have many nuances, including the scope of confidentiality versus the attorney-client privilege, the lawyer’s responsibility to reveal information to prevent a client’s misconduct, the lawyer as witness, the lawyer’s duty to prevent the disclosure of client information, and the extension of the attorney-client privilege to others in the attorney’s office.

The Colorado Bar Association Ethics Committee has tackled some of these issues in Formal Opinion 108, “Inadvertent Disclosure of Privileged or Confidential Documents,” and Formal Opinion 90, “Preservation of Client Confidences in View of Modern Communications.” As this guidance suggests, attorneys must always be aware of when issues of privileges and confidentiality may arise in their practices.

At 8:30 am on Wednesday, December 14, 2016, attorney John Palmeri will discuss the intricacies of privileges and confidentiality in one-hour CLE program co-sponsored by the CBA Lawyers Professional Liability Committee. Attendees will also receive a copy of Mr. Palmeri’s chapter inLawyers’ Professional Liability in Colorado with further discussion of the topic. Register here or by clicking the links below.

 

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CLE Program: Privileges and Confidentiality

This CLE presentation will occur on December 14, 2016, at the CBA-CLE offices (1900 Grant Street, Third Floor), from 8:30 to 9:30 a.m. Register for the live program here or register for the webcast here. You may also call (303) 860-0608 to register.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here: MP3Video OnDemand.

Candor to the Tribunal and the Duty of Confidentiality: How to Broach This Ethical Pitfall

qtq80-uSztbKRule 3.3 of the Colorado Rules of Professional Conduct provides that a lawyer shall not “make a false statement of material fact or law to a tribunal or fail to correct a false statement of material fact or law previously made to the tribunal by the lawyer” or “fail to disclose to the tribunal legal authority in the controlling jurisdiction known to the lawyer to be directly adverse to the position of the client and not disclosed by opposing counsel.” But what exactly does this mean in the everyday practice of attorneys in Colorado?

Suppose the lawyer faces a client who intends to give false testimony or who refuses to correct a misstatement. What is material? May or must the lawyer withdraw from representation? Must the lawyer take further remedial measures? What must the lawyer do in an ex parte situation? In sum, how must the lawyer balance his or her duties to the client (particularly the attorney-client privilege) and the tribunal?

The Colorado Bar Association Ethics Committee addressed these questions in Formal Opinion 123, “Candor to the Tribunal and Remedial Issues in Civil Proceedings.” Opinion 123 requires the attorney to first remonstrate with the client. If that is unsuccessful, the attorney may be required to withdraw from representation. As a final measure, the attorney may make disclosure to the tribunal under certain circumstances. However, “the disclosure to remedy such a false statement must be limited to the extent reasonably necessary to achieve such ends and must be made in the manner that is the least harmful to the client while satisfying the commands of Colo. RPC 3.3.”

At noon on Tuesday, December 6, 2016, attorney Paul Gordon will delve into the intricacies involved with Colo. RPC 3.3 in a timely one-hour CLE. Mr. Gordon will bring his expertise in representing plaintiffs in malpractice claims against lawyers throughout the United States. Attendees will also receive a copy of Mr. Gordon’s chapter in Lawyers’ Professional Liability in Colorado with further discussion of the topic. Register here or by clicking the links below.

 

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CLE Program: Lawyers’ Duty of Candor to the Tribunal and Remedial Measures in Civil Actions and Proceedings

This CLE presentation will occur on December 6, 2016, at the CBA-CLE offices (1900 Grant Street, Third Floor), from noon to 1 p.m. Register for the live program here or register for the webcast here. You may also call (303) 860-0608 to register.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here: MP3Video OnDemand.

John Moye and John McCabe Receive Cathy Stricklin Krendl Business Lawyer Lifetime Achievement Award

Moye-McCabeIn 2014, the Colorado Bar Association Business Law Section created the “Cathy Stricklin Krendl Business Lawyer Lifetime Achievement Award.” The award is named for the first recipient in 2014, Cathy Stricklin Krendl, and is intended to recognize and honor her contributions to Colorado business law, including intellectual and professional excellence in the practice Colorado business law; generosity of spirit as reflected in the advancement of Colorado business law; efforts to enhance the general quality of business law practice by Colorado lawyers; and devotion to the principles of legal professionalism, all manifested consistently over years of endeavor.

The CBA Business Law Executive Council chose two outstanding recipients for 2016—John Moye, founding partner at Moye White, and John McCabe, Senior Of Counsel, with Davis Graham and Stubbs LLP. The awards will be presented at the 2016 Business Law Institute at the reception on the first day, September 15 at 5 p.m.  We invite all members of the CBA Business Law Section to attend the awards ceremony and reception even if you are unable to attend the Institute.  The exemplary contributions that the recipients have made to the area of business law will be shared at the ceremony. We look forward to seeing everyone there to celebrate their achievements.

 

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CLE Program: 2016 Business Law Institute

This CLE presentation will occur on September 15-16, 2016, at the Marriott City Center (1701 California Street, Denver). Register for the live program here. You may also call (303) 860-0608 to register.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here: CD • MP3Video OnDemand.

Nine Point One Shades of Grey — Are You In Compliance?

The Law Club is performing its annual Ethics Revue next week on Tuesday and Wednesday at Lannie’s Clocktower Cabaret in Denver. This entertaining production features ethics vignettes in musical theater format. It’s the most fun you’ll ever have at an ethics CLE. To prove it, check out these photos from last year’s Ethics Revue. Don’t miss out – register today! Space is limited. Click here to register for Tuesday night and click here to register for Wednesday night.

Came in Like a Wrecking Ball - Law Revue - Nov. 2014

She came in like a wrecking ball.

 

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The Hunger Games, ethics style.

 

Carnac the Magnificent - Law Revue - Nov. 2014

Carnac the Magnificent.

 

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The Yale Team.

 

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The grand finale. Congratulations on another successful performance!

10 iPad Apps for Use in the Office and the Courtroom

PrintThink of the first courtroom you were ever in. Was there a flip chart? An easel? A projector and slides? Or was there a sophisticated plasma TV screen and electronic system so attorneys could showcase their best evidence through their tablets? That last example may not have appeared in your first courtroom, but it certainly is becoming a common sight today.

Attorney Jason Márquez of Johnson Márquez Legal Group uses an iPad in every courtroom presentation where the judge allows it. Using apps like Adobe, Evernote, and Pocket Scan, he can create a compelling courtroom presentation to highlight favorable evidence while minimizing costs associated with photocopying and creating exhibit notebooks. Márquez believes so strongly in using iPads in his practice that he provides them to every member of his firm. He uses several apps, but suggests these ten apps as must-haves for office use and courtroom presentations:

  1. Adobe Acrobat® is multi-platform, PDF solution that allows you to work with all kinds of documents to: View, Create, Manipulate, Print, Combine files.
  2. GoodReader® is the super-robust PDF reader for iPad, iPhone and iPod touch. Sync with Dropbox, OneDrive, any FTP or SFTP server. Sync entire folders or individual files separately.
  3. DropBox® is a folder on your computer that synchronizes your files online and across computers. Any files you place within it will be available on your other computers with Dropbox, as well as the web.
  4. Evernote® is designed for note-taking and archiving. A “note” can be a piece of formatted text, a full webpage or webpage excerpt, a photograph, a voice memo, or a handwritten “ink” note. Notes can also have file attachments.
  5. Pocket Cloud® is a secure and fast way to remotely connect to your Mac or Windows desktop with your iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, or Android device no matter where you are. Access your files, pictures, and applications like Excel, Powerpoint, Photoshop, games or any other program.
  6. Tiny Scan® turns your iPhone/iPad into a portable scanner. Scans are saved to your phone as images or PDFs. Name and organize your scans into folders, or share them by: Email, Dropbox, Evernote, DropBox, Wi-Fi to your computer, Fax (using TinyFax).
  7. Dragon® Dictation is an easy-to-use voice recognition application powered by Dragon® NaturallySpeaking® that allows you to easily speak and instantly see your text or email messages. In fact, it’s up to five (5) times faster than typing on the keyboard.
  8. Prezi® is a presentation tool that can be used as an alternative to traditional slide making programs such as PowerPoint or Keynote. Instead of slides, Prezi makes use of one large canvas that allows you to pan and zoom to various parts of the canvas and emphasize the ideas presented there.
  9. Casemaker® is an alternative legal research tool to LexisNexis and Westlaw. It allows users to search and browse a variety of legal information such as statutes, regulations, and case law on the Web. Casemaker comes free with your CBA membership!
  10. JuryPad® assists with voir dire in different jurisdictions. Create custom seating charts for any courtroom. Add or modify a juror’s information including age, occupation, education, prior jury service, and much more.

Márquez will present on “The iPad Advantage” at the 2015 Colorado Legal & Technology Expo on Friday, August 21, 2015 at the Warwick Hotel in downtown Denver. Entrance to the Expo is free, and Márquez’s CLE program is only $19 for CBA members. Join us at the Warwick on Friday and learn how you can increase your productivity—and your bottom line.

2015 Colorado Legal & Technology Expo

The 2015 Colorado Legal & Technology Expo will take place on Friday, August 21, 2015 at the Warwick Hotel in Denver. Entrance to the Expo is free. Each 50-minute CLE program is $19 for CBA members and $39 for non-CBA members. Register for the event and find more information here.

5 Components of a Great Business Plan

HYS2015Have you ever wanted to start your own law firm? It can be a great way to practice in the areas you’re especially interested in while controlling your time and caseload. However, many lawyers are unsure about the business side of running a law business. Accounting, personnel issues, technology—there is a lot more to think about than simply your preferred practice area.

Our three-day institute, “Hanging Your Shingle,” can help. Learn about the ins and outs of running a law practice from successful solo and small firm attorneys. Some of the topics to be covered at this year’s institute include “Writing Your Business Plan,” “Trust Account Management and Fee Agreements,” “Marketing and Business Development,” “Technology: Your First Partner,” and more.

Qusair Mohamedbhai and Siddhartha Rathod of Rathod Mohamedbhai LLC will present “Writing Your Business Plan.” These partners know first-hand the keys to succeeding at a small practice, and appreciate the opportunity to share their experience with attorneys just beginning their own firms. Among other topics, they will discuss these five components of a great business plan:

  1. Executive Summary – explains what the firm does, establishes goals, creates a mission statement, and elucidates milestones
  2. General Company Overview – provides a glimpse into what makes your firm unique and offers detailed attorney biographies
  3. Industry Analysis – this is an important part of the business plan that examines area demand and crucial details such as price, location, experience, and competition
  4. Financial Plan – also a very important part of a great business plan, the financial plan sets expense and revenue projections and determines profit margins
  5. Marketing Strategies – marketing is key to continuing your successful business, including referrals, traditional marketing, word of mouth, and more

Listen to Mohamedbhai and Rathod speak at “Hanging Your Shingle” this week. Call us at (303) 860-0608 or click the links below to register.

CLE Program: Hanging Your Shingle

This CLE presentation will take place from Thursday, August 20, 2015 through Saturday, August 22, 2015 at the CLE offices. Click here to register for the live program and click here to register for the webcast..

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here – Video OnDemand – MP3

 

Business Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) Expanding Exponentially

DroneDrones, also known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) or Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV), are not just for hobbyists anymore. Drones are devices that are used for flight in the air without an onboard pilot. Drones can be small and simple, such as remote-controlled aircraft popularized by hobbyists, or large and complex, like the surveillance aircraft used by the military in hostile areas. The military has been using drones for many years to conduct surveillance and deliver weapons in dangerous war zones. However, in the last several years, civilian and business use of drones has increased dramatically.

Non-military drone use is categorized into public aircraft operations and civil operations. Public aircraft operations are uses by public agencies or organizations of a particular aircraft for a particular purpose in a particular area. Public operation uses can include law enforcement, firefighting, border patrol, disaster relief, search and rescue, and military training. Civil operations are any operations that do not meet the statutory criteria for public aircraft operations, including business uses such as for agricultural purposes, construction, security, TV and movie industry uses, environmental monitoring, insurance, aerial photography, news media, and much more.

Because they utilize airspace for their operations, drones are regulated by the FAA. In 2013, the FAA issued a comprehensive plan for the safe integration of civil unmanned aircraft systems into the country’s airspace. In early 2015, the FAA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for small UAS. The goal of the proposed rules is to provide a framework of regulations to allow routine use of certain small UAS while maintaining flexibility to accommodate future changes in technology. The public comment period for the proposed rules ended April 24, 2015.

Businesses wishing to utilize drones must obtain a Section 333 Exemption from the FAA. Petitions for Section 333 Exemption must be filed with and approved by the FAA before the drone may be used for business purposes. The FAA can also grant businesses the right to use airspace via Special Airworthiness Certificates. Special Airworthiness Certificates are available for research and development or experimental aircraft.

Attorney Thomas Dougherty, II, head of Lewis Roca Rothgerber’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems Industry Team, will discuss drone law at CLE on July 28, 2015. Topics to be explored include potential drone uses, FAA regulations covering drones, required information for petitions for Section 333 Exemption, Certificates of Waiver or Authorization, the FAA’s enforcement authority, and legal issues arising out of state and local laws for the use of drones. Register now by clicking the links below or calling (303) 860-0608.

CLE Program: Drones for Lawyers: The Do’s and Don’ts for Clients

This CLE presentation will take place Tuesday, July 28, 2015 at the CLE offices. Click here to register for the live program or click here to register for the webcast.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here – Video OnDemand – MP3

 

Happy Fourth of July!

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In honor of Independence Day, the CBA, DBA, and CBA-CLE offices will be closed on Friday, July 3, 2015. The CLE offices will close at 2 p.m. on Thursday, July 2. You can still register for classes, order books and homestudies, and sign up for the CLE Pass online at cle.cobar.org.

Happy Fourth of July!

Let’s Talk About Beer (Law)

BeerColorado loves its beer. Denver is the nation’s former microbrew capital and microbreweries throughout the state continue to thrive. Naturally, because beer business is big business, beer law became a practice area.

Manufacturing and selling alcohol is highly regulated, and microbreweries must comply with myriad state and federal alcohol regulations in addition to standard business regulations. Beyond the regulatory side of beer law, though, are intellectual property concerns. Recently, New Belgium Brewery has been involved in a publicized case about trademark rights to its Slow Ride Session IPA.

New Belgium filed for trademark protection for its Slow Ride IPA, which was granted without opposition by the USPTO. Later, it learned that Oasis Texas Brewing Co. was producing a beer named Slow Ride Pale Ale. According to New Belgium, the Fort Collins brewery offered to resolve the issue amicably in order to allow both breweries to continue to use the Slow Ride name in certain locations, but Oasis refused, instead issuing a cease and desist letter to New Belgium in which it demanded that all products bearing the Slow Ride name be destroyed and profits from Slow Ride given to Oasis. (Oasis claims New Belgium tried to “strong arm” it into accepting a joint use agreement and says that all negotiations with New Belgium have devolved into hostility.) New Belgium eventually filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado, seeking exclusive use of the Slow Ride name pursuant to its trademark. Earlier this month, a federal judge dismissed the lawsuit for lack of personal jurisdiction over the Texas-based defendants.

The Slow Ride dispute is far from the first trademark dispute to arise from craft beer. Ohio-based Great Lakes Brewing agreed to change the name of its Alchemy IPA as a result of a trademark conflict with the Craft Beer Alliance. Innovation Brewery, a small craft brewery in North Carolina, was accused by Michigan-based Bell’s Brewery of infringing on its trademarked slogan, “bottling innovation since 1985.” Boulder-based Kettle and Stone Brewing Co. agreed to change its name after contact from California’s Stone Brewing Co. Lagunitas Brewery in California dropped its lawsuit against Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. after public outrage at its comparison of the two beer companies’ IPA logos. The list goes on and on.

Later this month, CLE will host its annual Rocky Mountain Intellectual Property Institute. The plenary session, “Innovation & Disruption: How Crafty Micro-brews are Shaking Up the Beer Industry,” features attorney Michael Drumm of Drumm Law Group, LLC and Chris Hill of Odyssey Beerworks Brewery & Taproom in Arvada. The Rocky Mountain IP Institute will also feature a beer tasting this year. To register, click the link below.

CLE Program: The 13th Annual Rocky Mountain Intellectual Property Institute

This CLE presentation will take place from Thursday, May 28 through Friday, May 29, 2015. Click here to register.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here – CDMP3

 

Frederick Skillern: Real Estate Case Law — Contracts, Purchase and Sale, Transactions (4)

Editor’s note: This is Part 7 of a series of posts in which Denver-area real estate attorney Frederick Skillern provides summaries of case law pertinent to real estate practitioners (click here for previous posts). These updates originally appeared as materials for the 32nd Annual Real Estate Symposium in July 2014.

frederick-b-skillernBy Frederick B. Skillern

Taylor Morrison of Colorado, Inc. v. Bemas Construction
Colorado Court Appeals, January 30, 2013
2014 COA 10

Construction defects statute; willful and wanton breach of contract required to overcome liability limitation provisions in contract.

Taylor Morrison of Colorado, Inc. was the developer of a residential subdivision known as Homestead Hills. Pursuant to written contracts with Taylor, Terracon Consultants, Inc. performed geotechnical engineering and construction material testing services at the construction site. Bemas Construction performed site grading.

After many of the homes were constructed, Taylor began receiving complaints about cracks in the drywall of homes. Taylor remedied the defective conditions, and then sued Terracon and Bemas for breach of contract and negligence and other claims.

Taylor also moved for determination as to whether the Homeowner Protection Act of 2007 (HPA) invalidated the limitation of liability clauses in the contracts with Terracon. The trial court denied the motion on the ground that the HPA applies to residential property owners but not to commercial entities.

Terracon moved for leave to deposit into the court’s registry $550,000, representing the maximum amount that Taylor could recover from Terracon under the contractual limitation of liability clauses and the court order. It also requested that upon acceptance of such deposit, the court should declare Taylor’s claims against Terracon moot and dismiss them with prejudice. The trial court ruled in favor of Terracon. The money was deposited and the claims were dismissed with prejudice.

Taylor then went to trial against Bemas. The jury returned a verdict in Bemas’ favor on all of Taylor’s claims. Taylor appeals.

Taylor argued that it was error to rule that the HPA did not invalidate the limitation of liability clauses in Taylor’s contracts with Terracon. The court of appeals panel affirms the trial court’s judgment, but for different reasons. The court holds that regardless of whether the HPA applies to commercial entities, retroactive application of the HPA to these facts would be unconstitutionally retrospective. The Court concludes, however, that further proceedings are necessary to determine whether Taylor should have been permitted to introduce evidence of Terracon’s willful and wanton conduct to attempt to overcome Terracon’s assertion of the limitation of liability clauses.

The judgment is affirmed and the case is remanded to the trial court to determine whether Taylor should have been permitted to introduce evidence of Terracon’s willful and wanton conduct for the sole purpose of attempting to overcome Terracon’s assertion of the limitation of liability clauses at issue.

 

Jehly v. Brown
Colorado Court of Appeals, March 27, 2014
2014 COA 39

Fraudulent Concealment; Imputed Knowledge.

“Actual knowledge,” in the context of a fraudulent concealment claim, cannot be imputed to a principal through knowledge of its agent. Defendant Brown owned real property in Teller County and hired a general contractor to build a house on it. Before commencing, the contractor discovered that part of the property was located in a floodplain. Brown was not told of this fact.

Plaintiffs David and Peggy Jehly entered into a contact to purchase the house from Brown. Brown filled out a Seller’s Property Disclosure form by writing “New Construction” diagonally across every page and not checking any of the boxes. Before buying the house, the Jehlys were never informed that part of the property was located in a floodplain.

Approximately five years after the home purchase, heavy rains caused severe flooding and damage to the basement of the house. The Jehlys sued Brown, alleging he fraudulently concealed knowledge of the floodplain to induce plaintiffs to buy the house. During a bench trial, defendant denied having any personal knowledge of the floodplain at the time of the sale and denied that his general contractor or any subcontractors had so informed him. The trial court found as a matter of fact that he had no knowledge, and found in favor of defendant.

On appeal, plaintiffs asserts that it was error not to impute the general contractor’s knowledge that part of the property was in a floodplain to Brown. The court of appeals disagrees, and affirms. To prevail on a claim of fraudulent concealment, a plaintiff must show that a defendant actually knew of a material fact that was not disclosed. It is not enough that defendant should have or might have known the fact, and knowledge of his agent cannot be imputed for the purpose of this particular tort claim. Plaintiffs did not contest on appeal the trial court’s factual finding that defendant had no active or conscious belief or awareness of the existence of the floodplain. The trial court did not apply the wrong legal standard, because defendant did not have the requisite actual knowledge of the information allegedly concealed.

Frederick B. Skillern, Esq., is a director and shareholder with Montgomery Little & Soran, P.C., practicing in real estate and related litigation and appeals. He serves as an expert witness in cases dealing with real estate, professional responsibility and attorney fees, and acts as a mediator and arbitrator in real estate cases. Before joining Montgomery Little in 2003, Fred was in private practice in Denver for 6 years with Carpenter & Klatskin and for 10 years with Isaacson Rosenbaum. He served as a district judge for Colorado’s Eighteenth Judicial District from 2000 through 2002. Fred is a graduate of Dartmouth College, and received his law degree at the University of Colorado in 1976, in another day and time in which the legal job market was simply awful.