May 21, 2019

Colorado Court of Appeals: Partial Subordination Approach to Lien Priority Best Reflects Colorado Law

The Colorado Court of Appeals issued its opinion in Tomar Development, Inc. v. Friend on Thursday, June 4, 2015.

Lien—Subordination Agreement—Partial Subordination Approach.

The Friend family sold its ranch to Friend Ranch Investors Group (FRIG) to develop it into a resort-style golf course community. In 2010, FRIG conveyed the property to Mulligan, LLC, and at that time, the relevant order of priority was (1) Colorado Capital Bank’s (CCB) senior lien; (2) Tomar Development (Tomar); (3) the Damyanoviches; (4) the Friends; and (5) CCB’s junior lien. Bent Tree, Mulligan, and CCB then entered into a subordination agreement whereby CCB’s senior lien became subordinate to CCB’s junior lien. Neither Tomar, the Damyanoviches, nor the Friends was involved in or an intended beneficiary of the subordination agreement. CCB’s senior lien was never released. Bent Tree then foreclosed on CCB’s senior lien and, in November 2010, Bent Tree bought the property at a public trustee’s foreclosure sale for approximately $11,800. Tomar, the Friends, and the Damyanoviches filed claims, each of which sought declaratory judgments as to the priority of their interests, which were dismissed by the trial court under CRCP 12(b)(5).

On appeal, Tomar, the Friends, and the Damyanoviches argued that the trial court erred in applying the partial subordination approach to the subordination of liens. The partial subordination approach applies when the most senior lienholder (A) agrees to subordinate his interest to the most junior lienholder (C) without consulting the intermediary lienholders (B). Under this approach, when A subordinates to C, C becomes the most senior lienholder, but only to the extent of A’s original lien. Under this partial subordination approach, B is not affected by the agreement between A and C, to which it was not privy. Colorado adopts the partial subordination approach, and it was properly applied in this case. Accordingly, the trial court did not err in dismissing Tomar’s, the Damyanoviches’, and the Friends’ claims seeking a declaratory judgment that each of their interests was senior to all other interests.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of The Colorado Lawyer.

Final Bills of 2015 Legislative Session Signed; Three Sent to Secretary of State Without Signature

CapitolbuildingOn Friday, June 5, 2015, Governor Hickenlooper signed 60 bills into law and allowed three bills to become law without a signature. To date, Governor Hickenlooper has signed 362 bills into law, vetoed three bills, and allowed three to become law without a signature. The bills signed Friday are summarized here.

  • SB 15-011 – Concerning the Pilot Program for Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries Relating to the Use of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Nancy Todd and Rep. Dianne Primavera. The bill continues the Medicaid Spinal Cord Injury Alternative Medicine Pilot Program and expands the program so it can serve additional clients.
  • SB 15-090Concerning the Adoption of Standards Governing Temporary Permits on Motor Vehicles for Effective Readability, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Nancy Todd and Rep. Max Tyler. The bill requires that temporary motor vehicle plates meet the same requirements regarding readability as permanent plates.
  • HB 15-1310 – Concerning the Authority of the Division of Parks and Wildlife to Acquire Real Property for their Garfield County Administrative Office and Public Service Center, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Bob Rankin and Sen. Randy Baumgardner. The bill allows the Division of Parks and Wildlife to purchase a specific property in Garfield County.
  • HB 15-1318 – Concerning the Requirements for Administering a Single Medicaid Waiver for Home- and Community-Based Services for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Dave Young and Sen. Kevin Grantham. The bill requires the Department of Health Care Policy and Financing to consolidate two waiver programs for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • HB 15-1252 – Concerning an Extension of the Number of Years the Individual Income Tax Return Includes a Voluntary Contribution Designation for the Colorado Healthy Rivers Fund, by Rep. Diane Mitsch Bush and Sen. Jerry Sonnenberg. The bill extends the voluntary check-box contribution for the Colorado Healthy Rivers Fund until 2020.
  • HB 15-1166 – Concerning the Creation of a Tributary Groundwater Monitoring Network in the South Platte River Alluvial Aquifer, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Lori Saine & Jeni James Arndt and Sen. Vicki Marble. The bill creates a basin-wide tributary groundwater monitoring network in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer based on recommendations from a CWCB report.
  • HB 15-1283 – Concerning Marijuana Testing, and, in Connection Therewith, Creating a Reference Lab by December 31, 2015, that will House a Library of Testing Methodologies and Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Steve Lebsock and Sen. Chris Holbert. The bill requires the Department of Public Health and Environment to develop and maintain a marijuana laboratory testing reference library.
  • HB 15-1368 – Concerning the Creation of a Cross-System Response for Behavioral Health Crises Pilot Program to Serve Individuals with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Dave Young and Sen. Kevin Grantham. The bill creates a pilot program to support collaborative approaches for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities and a mental health or behavioral disorder.
  • HB 15-1247 – Concerning the Implementation of the Legislative Audit Committee’s Recommendations for Review of Dam Safety, by Rep. Lori Saine and Sen. Tim Neville. The bill increases the fees charged by the State Engineer for dam project design review.
  • HB 15-1248 – Concerning Limited Access by Private Child Placement Agencies to Records Relating to Child Abuse or Neglect for Purposes of Ensuring Safe Placements for Foster Children, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Jonathan Singer and Sen. Owen Hill. The bill permits one representative at each child placement agency to review records of potential foster parents for reports of abuse or neglect.
  • HB 15-1355 – Concerning Access to Personal Records Relating to a Person’s Family History, by Reps. Lori Saine & Jonathan Singer and Sens. Vicki Marble & Linda Newell. The bill allows an adult adoptee to access his or her birth certificate and that of his or her adult sibling in Colorado.
  • HB 15-1357 – Concerning the Establishment of the Ratio of Valuation for Assessment of Residential Real Property, by Reps. Lois Court & Brian DelGrosso and Sens. Tim Neville & Michael Johnston. The bill establishes the residential assessment rate for 2015-2016 and does not change it.
  • SB 15-020 – Concerning Education Regarding the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse and Assault, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Linda Newell and Rep. Beth McCann. The bill expands the duties of the School Safety Resource Center to include providing education and materials regarding awareness and prevention of child sexual assault.
  • SB 15-109 – Concerning the Mandatory Reporting of Mistreatment Against an Adult with a Disability, by Sen. Kevin Grantham and Rep. Dave Young. The bill expands the at-risk adult reporting requirements to include adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • SB 15-195 – Concerning Appropriating to the Department of Corrections Moneys Generated as Savings from the Awarding of Achievement Earned Time to Inmates, and, in Connection Therewith, Making and Reducing Appropriations, by Sen. Pat Steadman and Rep. Millie Hamner. The bill limits the amount of earned time savings that may be used toward education and parole programs.
  • SB 15-196 – Concerning Measures to Ensure Industrial Hemp Remains Below a Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentration of No More than Three-Tenths of One Percent on a Dry Weight Basis, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sens. Vicki Marble & Pat Steadman and Reps. Steve Lebsock & Lois Saine. The bill expands the industrial hemp committee and imposes new regulations on industrial hemp.
  • SB 15-220 – Concerning Security for the Colorado General Assembly, by Sens. Morgan Carroll & Bill Cadman and Reps. Crisanta Duran & Brian DelGrosso. The bill requires the Colorado State Patrol to provide protection for the members of the General Assembly.
  • SB 15-256 – Concerning the Operation of the Legislative Committee that Oversees the Colorado Health Benefit Exchange, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Ellen Roberts and Rep. Beth McCann. The bill makes several changes to the Colorado health benefit exchange committee’s duties.
  • SB 15-115 – Concerning the Sunset Review of the Medical Marijuana Programs, by Sen. Owen Hill and Rep. Ellen Roberts. The bill continues the Medical Marijuana Code until 2019 and implements some changes to the program.
  • HB 15-1063 – Concerning Prohibited Communication Concerning Patents, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Dan Pabon and Sen. David Balmer. The bill establishes a framework for communications between parties regarding patent rights.
  • HB 15-1178 – Concerning the State Engineer’s Authority to Allow Well Users to Lower the Water Table in an Area that the State Engineer Determines is Experiencing Damaging High Groundwater Levels, and, in Connection Therewith, Establishing an Emergency Dewatering Grant Program for the Purpose of Lowering the Water Table in Areas of Gilcrest, Colorado, and Sterling, Colorado and Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Lori Saine & Stephen Humphrey and Sens. Vicki Marble & Jerry Sonnenberg. The bill establishes the Emergency Dewatering Grant Program for the emergency pumping of wells.
  • HB 15-1102 – Concerning the Expansion of the “Colorado Cottage Foods Act”, and, in Connection Therewith, Increasing the Food Products a Producer Can Sell Under the Act, Requiring an Additional Disclaimer, and Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Millie Hamner & Yeulin Willett and Sens. Kerry Donovan & Kevin Grantham. The bill divides the foods that can be produced under the Cottage Foods Act into two tiers.
  • SB 15-012 – Concerning the Treatment of Child Support for Purposes of the Colorado Works Program, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. John Kefalas and Rep. Brittany Pettersen. The bill allows the Department of Human Services to disregard child support income when determining eligibility for the TANF program.
  • HB 15-1219 – Concerning the Enterprise Zone Investment Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Products, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Beth McCann & Jon Becker and Sens. Mary Hodge & Jerry Sonnenberg. The bill allows a taxpayer who places a renewable energy product in an enterprise zone to receive a refund of the tax credit.
  • HB 15-1228 – Concerning the Special Fuel Excise Tax on Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Diane Mitsch Bush & Jon Becker and Sen. Ray Scott. The bill makes several changes to the administration and collection of the special fuel excise tax program for liquefied petroleum.
  • HB 15-1350 – Concerning Performance Measures for Accrediting an Alternative Education Campus, by Rep. Brittany Pettersen and Sen. Owen Hill. The bill requires the Department of Education to convene stakeholder meetings to review statutes and rules related to performance indicators for the accreditation of alternative education campuses.
  • HB 15-1392 – Concerning Changes to the State’s Payroll System to Allow All State Employees to be Paid Twice a Month, by Reps. Dave Young & Jack Tate and Sens. Linda Newell & Tim Neville. The bill changes the pay schedule for all state employees to twice a month.
  • HB 15-1352 – Concerning Modifications to the Naturopathic Formulary of Medications that a Registered Naturopathic Doctor is Authorized to Use in the Practice of Naturopathic Medicine, by Reps. Joann Ginal & Kathleen Conti and Sens. Larry Crowder & Linda Newell. The bill expands the authority of naturopathic doctors in several ways.
  • HB 15-1353 – Concerning the Continuation of the Regulation of Conveyances, and, in Connection Therewith, Extending the Certification of Conveyances and Conveyance Mechanics, Contractors, and Inspectors of Elevators and Escalators Until July 1, 2022, by Rep. Alec Garnett and Sen. Beth Martinez Humenik. The bill extends the Elevator and Escalator Certification Act to regulate conveyances.
  • HB 15-1360 – Concerning the Use of Injection Therapy by Acupuncturists Licensed Pursuant to Article 29.5 of Title 12, Colorado Revised Statutes, by Rep. Joann Ginal and Sen. Kevin Lundberg. The bill allows licensed acupuncturists to practice injection therapy.
  • HB 15-1083 – Concerning Patient Financial Contributions for Physical Rehabilitation Services, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Dianne Primavera and Sen. Larry Crowder. The bill requires the Colorado Commission on Affordable Health Care to conduct a study of the costs of physical rehabilitation services.
  • HB 15-1261 – Concerning the Maximum Reserve for a Cash Fund with Fee Revenue, by Rep. Dave Young and Sens. Kevin Grantham & Pat Steadman. The bill alters the cash fund reserve requirement.
  • HB 15-1273 – Concerning Additional Comprehensive Reporting Requirements for School Discipline Reports, and, in Connection Therewith, Requiring a Post-Enactment Review of the Implementation of this Act and Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Polly Lawrence and Sen. Linda Newell. The bill adds sexual assaults and marijuana violations to the list of items that must be included in a safe schools report.
  • HB 15-1370 – Concerning Access to Certain Records of a County Department of Human or Social Services Containing Personal Identifying Information by an Auditor Conducting a Financial or Performance Audit of that Department, by Rep. Dianne Primavera and Sens. Lucia Guzman & Tim Neville. The bill permits an auditor access to all files of a county department of human or social services that are needed to conduct the audit.
  • SB 15-029 – Concerning a Study of Volunteer Firefighter Pension Plans in the State, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Jessie Ulibarri and Rep. Jovan Melton. The bill requires the state auditor to conduct a study of firefighter pension plans in Colorado.
  • SB 15-184 – Concerning Enforcement of Compulsory Education Requirements, by Sen. Chris Holbert and Rep. Rhonda Fields. The bill requires the chief judge in each judicial district to convene a meeting of stakeholders to find ways to address truancy other than detention.
  • SB 15-203 – Concerning Continuation of the Regulation of Debt-Management Service Providers by the Attorney General, and, in Connection Therewith, Implementing the Recommendations of the 2014 Sunset Report by the Department of Regulatory Agencies, by Sen. John Cooke and Rep. Dan Pabon. The bill continues the Uniform Debt-Management Services Act.
  • SB 15-228 – Concerning a Process for the Periodic Review of Provider Rates Under the “Colorado Medical Assistance Act”, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Pat Steadman and Rep. Bob Rankin. The bill establishes a process for the Department of Health Care Policy and Financing to review Medicare provider rates.
  • SB 15-261 – Concerning a Modification to the Statute that Specifies the Forms of Public Notice that a Public Utility May Provide Regarding a Change in the Public Utility’s Schedule of Charges to Allow a Request for an Alternative Form of Notice within the Same Formal Application that the Public Utility Files with the Public Utilities Commission When Applying for a Change in the Public Utility’s Schedule of Charges, by Sen. Jerry Sonnenberg and Rep. Dave Young. The bill allows public utilities to request rate changes during existing proceedings.
  • HB 15-1282 – Concerning the Creation of Crimes Involving Deception about Material Information in Connection with Birth Certificates, by Rep. Lois Saine and Sen. Linda Newell. The bill creates a class 2 misdemeanor for anyone who intentionally omits material information in the preparation of a birth certificate.
  • HB 15-1309 – Concerning the Placement of Interim Therapeutic Restorations by Dental Hygienists, and, in Connection Therewith, Ensuring Medicaid and Children’s Basic Health Plan Reimbursement for Services Provided Through the Use of Telehealth Related to Interim Therapeutic Restoration Procedures and Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Joann Ginal and Sen. Larry Crowder. The bill allows dental hygienists to perform therapeutic restorations.
  • HB 15-1333 – Concerning the Creation of a Regional Center Depreciation Account in the Capital Construction Fund for Maintenance of the State’s Regional Centers, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Ed Vigil and Sen. Randy Baumgardner. The bill creates the Regional Center Depreciation Account to hold moneys for depreciation and capital construction.
  • HB 15-1337 – Concerning Placement Stability for Children, by Rep. Angela Williams and Sen. Linda Newell. The bill requires a court to consider all statutory factors when placing a child for foster care.
  • HB 15-1340 – Concerning an Extension of the Period During Which the Voluntary Contribution Designation Benefiting the Colorado Multiple Sclerosis Fund will Appear on the State Individual Income Tax Return Form, by Reps. Faith Winter & Perry Buck and Sens. Beth Martinez Humenik & Linda Newell. The bill extends the Colorado Multiple Sclerosis Fund check-off through 2021.
  • HB 15-1345 – Concerning an Exemption from Certain Traffic Requirements for the Riders of a Three-Wheel Low-Speed Motorcycle, by Rep. Paul Rosenthal and Sen. Tim Neville. The bill exempts motorcyclists who ride low-speed three-wheeled motorcycles from requirements of licensure and eye protection.
  • HB 15-1366 – Concerning the Expansion of the Colorado Job Growth Incentive Tax Credit to Allow Credits for Businesses that Enter Into a Qualified Partnership with a State Institution of Higher Education, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Reps. Dan Pabon & Yeulin Willett and Sen. David Balmer. The bill allows the job growth incentive tax credit to be refundable under certain conditions.
  • HB 15-1387 – Concerning the Elimination of the Authorized Transfer of Medical Marijuana to Retail Marijuana at the Time that a Retail Marijuana Establishment License Becomes Effective, by Reps. Dan Pabon & Bob Rankin and Sens. Pat Steadman & Kent Lambert. The bill prohibits a medical marijuana facility with a retail marijuana license from transferring any of its medical marijuana to the retail establishment.
  • SB 15-192 – Concerning the Provision of a Therapeutic Alternative Drug Selection to Patients Residing in Certain Long-Term Care Facilities, by Sen. Irene Aguilar and Rep. Janak Joshi. The bill allows licensed pharmacists to provide therapeutic alternate drug selections to patients in nursing care facilities and long-term acute care hospitals if certain conditions are met.
  • SB 15-209 – Concerning an Amendment to Specified Statutes Governing the Management of the Financial Affairs of a Unit Owners’ Association Under the “Colorado Common Interest Ownership Act” so as to Exempt Communities in Which a Majority of Units Designated for Residential Use are Time Share Units, by Sen. David Balmer and Rep. Angela Williams. The bill exempts certain timeshare communities from the definitions of “common interest community” and “homeowners’ association.”
  • SB 15-210Concerning Creation of the Title Insurance Commission, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Laura Woods and Rep. Jeni James Arndt. The bill creates the Title Insurance Commission to serve as an advisory body to the Commissioner of Insurance.
  • SB 15-229 – Concerning the Creation of an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis License Plate for Motor Vehicles, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Laura Woods and Reps. Janak Joshi & Diane Mitsch Bush. The bill creates an ALS license plate, available when the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the ALS Association receives 3,000 signatures of individuals committed to purchase the plate.
  • SB 15-262 – Concerning Updates to the Statutes Regulating Blanket Sickness and Accident Insurance, by Sen. Tim Neville and Rep. Angela Williams. The bill expands and clarifies the groups that may receive blanket accident and sickness insurance.
  • SB 15-267 – Concerning the Financing of Public Schools, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Owen Hill and Rep. Millie Hamner. The bill increases per-pupil funding for public schools to reflect inflation.
  • SB 15-270 – Concerning the Creation of the Office of the State Architect, and, in Connection Therewith, Adding Statewide Planning Responsibilities and Making and Reducing an Appropriation, by Sen. Kent Lambert and Rep. Bob Rankin. The bill creates the Office of the State Architect in law.
  • SB 15-271 – Concerning the Continuation of the Entities Charged with Representing the Interests of Certain Utility Consumers in Matters Heard by the Public Utilities Commission, by Sen. Jerry Sonnenberg and Rep. Jon Becker. The bill continues the Office of the Consumer Counsel and implements recommendations from the sunset review.
  • SB 15-278 – Concerning an Amendment to the Annual General Appropriation Act for the 2013-2014 Fiscal Year to Allow Unspent Moneys Appropriated for the Colorado State Capitol Dome Restoration Project to be Used for the Next Planned Phase of the Colorado State Capitol Restoration, by Sens. Kent Lambert & Pat Steadman and Rep. Millie Hamner. The bill allows the Department of Personnel and Administration to use moneys from the capitol restoration project on other projects.
  • SB 15-281 – Concerning Parent Engagement in Institute Charter Schools, by Sen. Owen Hill and Rep. Tracy Kraft-Tharp. The bill requires charter schools, rather than the Charter School Institute, to hold meetings regarding school priority implementation.
  • SB 15-283 – Concerning Debt Collection Proceedings, and, in Connection Therewith, Increasing the Scope and Value of Assets that may be Exempted, Clarifying Definitions of “Earnings”, and Specifying the Procedure for Service of Notice of Exemption and Pending Levy in Certain Garnishment Proceedings, by Sen. Laura Woods and Rep. Pete Lee. The bill modifies exemptions and procedures in certain debt collection actions.
  • SB 15-202 – Concerning the Regulation of Water Conditioning Appliances Pursuant to the Plumbing Code, by Sen. David Balmer and Rep. Dan Pabon. The bill creates three new categories of registered water conditioners.
  • HB 15-1301 – Concerning the Creation of a Credit for Tobacco Products that a Distributor Ships or Transports to an Out-of-State Consumer, and, in Connection Therewith, Creating the “Cigar On-Line Sales Equalization Act” and Making an Appropriation, by Rep. Angela Williams and Sens. Kevin Grantham & Owen Hill. The bill creates a credit against tobacco excise tax equal to Colorado excise taxes paid on tobacco products other than cigarettes sold by a distributor to an out-of-state consumer.

In addition to the bills signed Friday, the governor allowed three bills to become law without a signature. These bills are also summarized here.

  • HB 15-1316 – Concerning a Simplification of the Process by which the Public Utilities Commission may Issue a Certificate to Provide Taxicab Service in Certain Metropolitan Counties, by Reps. Steve Lebsock & Dan Thurlow and Sens. Owen Hill & Jessie Ulibarri. The bill changes the prerequisites for an applicant seeking authorization to provide taxicab service within certain counties.
  • SB 15-067 – Concerning an Increase in the Class of Offense for Certain Acts of Assault Against Persons Engaged in Performing their Duties as Emergency Responders, by Sen. John Cooke and Rep. Janak Joshi. The bill raises the classification for assault of a first responder to assault in the second degree.
  • SB 15-290 – Concerning Creation of the Colorado Student Leaders Institute, And, In Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Nancy Todd and Rep. Jim Wilson. The bill creates the Colorado Student Leaders Institute, a competitive summer residential education program for high school students.

For a complete list of Governor Hickenlooper’s 2015 legislative decisions, click here.

Colorado Supreme Court: Health Savings Account Not Retirement Account for Garnishment Exemption Purposes

The Colorado Supreme Court issued its opinion in Roup v. Commercial Research, LLC on Monday, June 1, 2015.

Health Savings Account—Statutory Exemptions From Garnishment—CRS § 13-54-102(1)(s).

In this decision, the Supreme Court held that a Health Savings Account (HSA) is not a “retirement plan” within the meaning of Colorado’s exemption statute. An HSA is not intended to replace income lost as a result of retirement; it is intended to cover medical costs incurred at any point during a person’s lifetime. The General Assembly has not chosen to provide an exemption for HSAs in the relevant statutes. Accordingly, the Court affirmed the judgment of the court of appeals.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of The Colorado Lawyer.

Colorado Supreme Court: Debt Services Company Cannot Avoid DMSA Regulation by Associating with Attorneys

The Colorado Supreme Court issued its opinion in Coffman v. Williamson on Tuesday, May 26, 2015.

Uniform Debt-Management Services Act—Legal Services Exemption—CRS § 12-14.5-202(10).

The Supreme Court examined the legal services exemption in the Uniform Debt-Management Services Act (UDMSA) to determine whether the original version of the exemption applies to Morgan Drexen, Inc., a company of non-lawyers. The Court also analyzed whether the amended version of the exemption violates the separation of powers doctrine in the Colorado Constitution and the Commerce Clause and Privileges and Immunities Clause in the U.S. Constitution because certain out-of-state attorneys may be subject to regulation under the UDMSA.

The Court held that the trial court erred by concluding that Morgan Drexen’s services fall within the scope of the legal services exemption in the original UDMSA, CRS § 12-14.5-202(10)(A). The original exemption encompasses non-lawyer assistants; however, Morgan Drexen’s activity here does not fall within the scope of that exemption because it performs substantive debt-management services without meaningful instruction and supervision by an attorney. The Court also held that the amended UDMSA does not violate the separation of powers doctrine in Article III of the Colorado Constitution or the Commerce and Privileges and Immunities Clauses of the U.S. Constitution. The Court reversed the trial court’s order and remanded that case for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of The Colorado Lawyer.

Colorado Court of Appeals: Attorney Fee Award in Traverse Proceeding Limited to Fees Incurred to Prepare, File, and Prosecute Traverse

The Colorado Court of Appeals issued its opinion in L&R Exploration Venture v. CCG, LLC on Thursday, April 23, 2015.

Garnishment—Attorney Fees Under CRCP 103 § 8(b)(5).

This is the second appeal in a garnishment proceeding. In the first appeal, intervenors challenged the district court’s order allowing garnishment of their bank accounts to satisfy an underlying judgment in favor of L&R Exploration Venture and its participants (collectively, L&R plaintiffs). A division of the Court of Appeals affirmed the order, concluding that the district court did not err in (1) determining that intervenor CCG is the alter ego of judgment debtor Jack Grynberg; (2) concluding that Grynberg and his alter egos had made voidable fraudulent transfers to intervenors Gadeco, Pricaspian, and Celeste Grynberg; and (3) allowing L&R plaintiffs to garnish the bank accounts of those intervenors.

Intervenors challenged the district court’s order awarding L&R plaintiffs attorney fees and costs under CRCP 103, § 8(b)(5), which states “[a]t any hearing upon a traverse, the court shall make such orders as to reasonable attorney fees, costs and expense of the parties to such hearing as are just.” The Court held that it was error to award attorney fees and costs not incurred to prepare and file the traverses of the intervenors’ challenges to the garnishments or to subsequently prosecute the traverse proceeding. It held that such an award is limited, in a successful traverse action, to only the attorney fees and costs incurred by the garnishor to prepare, file, and prosecute the traverse, and, in an unsuccessful action, to the attorney fees and costs incurred by the putative garnishee to defend against the traverse. The order was vacated for a recalculation of attorney fees and costs.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of The Colorado Lawyer.

Forms for Restricted Account, Sealing Minor In Possession Records, Instructions for Adoptions, and More Amended

In March and April 2015, the Colorado State Judicial Branch amended several forms and instructions in many different categories. Forms are available for download here as PDFs and from the State Judicial website as Word documents and PDFs.

ADOPTION

  • JDF 498 – “Instructions for Kinship Adoption” (revised 03/15)
  • JDF 499 – “Instructions for Custodial Adoption” (revised 03/15)

DOMESTIC RELATIONS

  • JDF 1302 – “Order for Publication of Summons/Service by Certified Mail/Publication by Consolidated Notice” (revised 03/15)

EVICTIONS AND FORECLOSURES

  • JDF 100 – “Instructions for Forcible Entry and Detainer (FED)/Eviction” (revised 03/15)
  • JDF 140 – “Instructions for Forcible Entry and Detainer (FED)/Eviction for Owner Occupied Mobile Home” (revised 04/15)

GARNISHMENTS AND JUDGMENTS

  • JDF 84 – “Notice to Terminate Income Assignment” (revised 03/15)

MISCELLANEOUS

  • JDF 5“Authorization to Pay a Law Firm for Attorney Appointments” (revised 03/15)
  • JDF 98 – “Affidavit of Service” (revised 03/15)

PROBATE

  • JDF 866 – “Order for Deposit of Funds to Restricted Account and Annual Filing of Restricted Account Report” (revised 04/15)
  • JDF 896 – “Restricted Account Report” (revised 04/15)

SEAL MY CASE

  • JDF 314 – “Order Regarding the Sealing of Records Related to Illegal Possession or Consumption of Ethyl Alcohol by an Underage Person (MIP) Pursuant to § 18-13-122(10), C.R.S.” (revised 03/15)
  • JDF 314 – “Order Regarding the Sealing of Records Related to Illegal Possession or Consumption of Ethyl Alcohol or Marijuana by an Underage Person (MIP) Pursuant to § 18-13-122(13), C.R.S.” (revised 03/15)

For all of State Judicial’s forms, click here.

Colorado Court of Appeals: Assets in Revocable Trust are Assets of Settlor and Can Be Sold to Satisfy Creditor Claims

The Colorado Court of Appeals issued its opinion in Independent Bank v. Pandy on Thursday, January 15, 2015.

Foreign Judgment—Domesticated Judgment—Lien—Statute of Limitations—Interlocutory Appeal—Quiet Title.

In August 2010, Independent Bank (Bank) obtained two judgments against Joseph Pandy in a Michigan state court. In April 2012, the Bank domesticated the Michigan judgment in the district court in Grand County, Colorado. It then filed transcripts of the domesticated judgments with the Grand County Clerk and Recorder in January 2013 to obtain a judgment lien against Joseph Pandy’s real property in the county, including the C Lazy U Homesteads. At that time, the Joseph Pandy, Jr. and Elizabeth Pandy Living Trust (Trust) held title to the C Lazy U Homesteads. In March 2014, the Bank filed a “Complaint for Quiet Title and Decree of Foreclosure” against the Pandys in Colorado. The complaint sought a decree that the judgment lien against Joseph Pandy individually was valid against his interest in the Trust. After the court denied the Pandys’ motion to dismiss, the Pandys filed a CAR 4.2 petition for interlocutory appeal.

The Pandys contended that their petition for interlocutory appeal satisfies the requirements of CAR 4.2. Here, if the statute of limitations in CRS § 13-80-101(1)(k) bars the Bank’s complaint, the litigation would be resolved without the need for a trial. Because the issue presented is both case dispositive and presents an unresolved question of law, the Pandys’ petition for interlocutory appeal satisfies the requirements of CAR 4.2.

The Pandys also contended that the three-year statute of limitations in CRS § 13-80-101(1)(k) bars the Bank’s complaint. The three-year statute of limitations is inapplicable to the Bank’s complaint because the Bank was not seeking a judgment. The applicable statute here is CRS § 13-52-102(1), which gives the Bank six years from the date of the Michigan judgment to foreclose on the judgment lien. Because the Bank brought its quiet title and foreclosure action within six years of the Michigan judgment, the action is not precluded by the statute of limitations. Accordingly, the three-year statute of limitations in CRS § 13-80-101(1)(k) does not bar the Bank’s complaint for quiet title on and foreclosure of the Trust’s property. The order was affirmed and the case was remanded for further proceedings.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of The Colorado Lawyer.

Colorado Court of Appeals: Uniform Debt-Management Services Act Does Not Implicate Subject Matter Jurisdiction

The Colorado Court of Appeals issued its opinion in State of Colorado v. Johnson Law Group, PLLC on Thursday, November 6, 2014.

Uniform Debt-Management Services Act—Subject Matter Jurisdiction—Affirmative Defense—Waiver.

Plaintiff, the State of Colorado, appealed the district court’s order dismissing its complaint against defendants, Johnson Law Group, PLLC, a Florida private limited liability company, and Clint L. Johnson. Johnson is an attorney who, in 2006, was licensed to practice law in Florida. In 2008, he added a debt-management services practice that extended to approximately forty-two states. In 2011, plaintiff filed a complaint against defendants, asserting violations of the Uniform Debt-Management Services Act (UDMSA) and the Colorado Consumer Protection Act. The court dismissed the complaint, concluding that the legal services exception defense was jurisdictional and, therefore, defendants were not subject to UDMSA regulation.

On appeal, plaintiff contended that the district court erred in dismissing its complaint for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. Because the legal services exception in the UDMSA does not implicate subject matter jurisdiction, it can be waived if not timely asserted as an affirmative defense. Defendant did not assert this affirmative defense until the eve of trial. Therefore, defendant waived any legal services exception defense by failing to assert it in their responsive pleading. The order dismissing the action was reversed and the case was remanded to the district court for a determination of penalties to be assessed against defendants.

Summary and full case available here, courtesy of  The Colorado Lawyer.

Bankruptcy Plan Modification by Debtor’s Counsel – Part of Bankruptcy Update 2014

In any three- to five-year period, many of us face unanticipated financial obstacles – medical expenses, educational expenses, dependent expenses. For a bankruptcy debtor, these unexpected financial burdens can derail a payment plan. Thankfully, the Bankruptcy Code at 11 U.S.C. § 1329 allows post-confirmation plan modifications so that debtors can adapt to changing life circumstances.

Section 1329 permits a debtor, trustee, or holder of an unsecured loan to request modification to increase or reduce payments to a particular class; prolong or shorten the time for those payments; alter the amount of distribution to a creditor in order to account for another payment not covered by the plan; or reduce payments in order to cover health insurance expenses for the debtor.

Experienced bankruptcy attorney Andrew S. Trexler offers some of the common scenarios in which his clients have requested post-confirmation plan modification:

  • To remove unpaid mortgage arrears following a mortgage loan modification and reduce plan length;
  • To bring payments current and reduce payments to account for change in projected disposable income, such as from retirement;
  • To allow for debtor to transition from one job or business to another through temporary reduction in monthly payment and provide for post-petition mortgage and HOA arrears;
  • To provide for pre-petition priority support arrears and cram down secured debt;
  • To surrender property securing Class 2 or 3 debts (Note: this is explicitly allowed by Judge Tallman so long as in good faith but disallowed by Judge Campbell);
  • Generally, to accommodate any significant decrease in disposable income caused by reduction in hours, job loss, increase in taxes due to end of payroll tax holiday in 2013 or increased medical bills, insurance costs, lawsuit defense, etc.; or
  • To allow for the purchase of health insurance (now generally required by the Affordable Care Act), so long as the debtor complies with § 1329(a)(4).

Trexler also provides the sample modification request motions and projected plans for several of these scenarios. He will present on this topic at Friday’s CLE program – Bankruptcy Update 2014 – along with several bankruptcy court judges and other area bankruptcy attorneys. Click the links below to register or call (303) 860-0608.

CLE Program: Bankruptcy Update 2014

This CLE presentation will take place on June 6, 2014. Click here to register for the live program and click here to register for the webcast. You can also register by phone at (303) 860-0608.

Can’t make the live program? Order the homestudy here — CD homestudy • MP3 audio downloadVideo OnDemand

College Affordability Act, Budget Bill, and Other Bills Signed by Governor

As the legislature winds down the 2014 legislative session, Governor Hickenlooper continues to sign legislation that passes both houses. To date, the governor has signed 165 bills and vetoed two. He signed seven bills into law on April 25, 2014, he signed the Long Bill (budget bill) on April 30, he signed the College Affordability Act on May 1, and he signed nine bills on May 2. These are summarized here.

April 25, 2014

  • HB 14-1092 – Concerning the Voluntary Contribution Designation Benefitting the Colorado Youth Conservation Corps Fund that Appears on the State Individual Income Tax Return Forms, by Rep. Edward Vigil and Sen. John Kefalas. The bill creates a new income tax donation checkoff to benefit the Colorado Youth Conservation Corps.
  • HB 14-1107 – Concerning the Authority of the Department of Revenue to Offer Taxpayers the Option to Receive Electronic Notices, by Rep. Max Tyler and Sen. Linda Newell. The bill allows the Department of Revenue to transmit taxpayer notices electronically.
  • HB 14-1176 – Concerning the State Audit Cycle of the Emissions Program for Motor Vehicles, by Rep. Su Ryden and Sen. Lois Tochtrop. The bill changes the state audit cycle of the emissions program from once every three years to once every five years.
  • HB 14-1277 – Concerning Eligibility Requirements for Recipients of Grants from the Military Family Relief Fund, by Rep. Jovan Melton and Sen. Nancy Todd. The bill opens eligibility for grants from the Military Family Relief Fund to families of Colorado National Guard members and families of military personnel called to duty by executive order of the governor.
  • HB 14-1286 – Concerning Authorization for the State Treasurer to Loan to the State Historical Society for Public Display Items Presented to the Governor as Gifts to the State, by Rep. Jovan Melton and Sen. Pat Steadman. The bill allows the treasurer to loan items that were gifts to the state to the History Colorado and museums for display.
  • HB 14-1289 – Concerning the Reinvestment of Unused Governmental Moneys Held by a Financial Institution that are in Excess of the Amount Insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in Accounts in Other Financial Institutions, by Rep. Frank McNulty and Sen. Mike Johnston. The bill specifies that monies in excess of the amount protected by the FDIC may be deposited in other accounts rather than used for Certificates of Deposit.
  • HB 14-1299 – Concerning the Repeal of the Six-Year Limitation on Applying a Salvage Brand to a Motor Vehicle Whose Cost of Being Repaired Exceeds the Value of the Vehicle Without the Recent Damage, by Rep. Max Tyler and Sen. Nancy Todd. The bill removes the requirement that a vehicle be under six years old when the damage occurs in order to be considered a salvage vehicle.

April 30, 2014

  • HB 14-1336 – Long Appropriations Bill, by the Joint Budget Committee. This bill presents the budget for fiscal year 2014-2015.

May 1, 2014

  • SB 14-001Concerning Making College Education More Affordable by Imposing Further Restrictions on Tuition Increases, Increasing Financial Aid, and Increasing Operating Support for Each Governing Board of a State-Supported Institution of Higher Education by Eleven Percent and, In Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sens. Cheri Jahn & Andy Kerr and Reps. Leroy Garcia & Mike McLachlan. The bill caps the annual increase in the rate of undergraduate in-state tuition for state supported institutions of higher education and appropriates $100,050,000 to the Department of Higher Education to support various financial aid programs and for the College Opportunity Fund and fee-for-service contracts.

May 2, 2014

  • SB 14-027 – Concerning Criminal History Background Checks for Professionals who Have the Authority to Appear in Court, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by Sen. Lucia Guzman and Rep. Pete Lee. The bill authorizes the Colorado Supreme Court to request CBI criminal background checks as part of the licensing process for attorneys.
  • SB 14-114 – Concerning Expanding Access for All Students to Colorado State University – Global Campus, by Sen. Nancy Todd and Reps. Millie Hamner & Chris Holbert. The bill allows CSU Global Campus to offer complete degree programs online.
  • SB 14-135 – Concerning the Repeal of Certain Provisions Concerning the Purchasing of Firearms in States that are Contiguous to Colorado, by Sen. Greg Brophy and Rep. Jared Wright. The bill generally allows purchases of firearms in states contiguous to Colorado and generally allows gun sales to residents of contiguous states.
  • SB 14-146 – Concerning Information that the Department of Transportation May Consider when Conducting a Traffic Investigation for the Purpose of Determining the Appropriate Speed Limit for a Portion of a State Highway for which a Municipality has Proposed a Speed Limit Alteration, by Sen. Gail Schwartz and Rep. Jim Wilson. The bill allows a local government that is proposing a speed limit adjustment to submit its own traffic data and  engineering reports.
  • HB 14-1193 – Concerning Requirements Governing the Imposition of a Fee for the Research and Retrieval of Public Records Under the “Colorado Open Records Act,” by Rep. Joseph Salazar and Sen. John Kefalas. The bill imposes certain restrictions on fees charged for the retrieval of records under the Colorado Open Records Act.
  • HB 14-1203 – Concerning Funding to Maintain the Infrastructure for the Digital Trunked Radio System, and, in Connection Therewith, Making an Appropriation, by the Joint Budget Committee. The bill makes a budget appropriation to replace legacy radio equipment and hardware at radio tower sites.
  • HB 14-1302 – Concerning the Addition of a Judgment Against a Debtor or Transferee who Acts with Actual Intent as an Available Remedy for a Creditor in a Fraudulent Transfer Action, by Rep. John Buckner and Sen. Mike Johnston. The bill provides an additional remedy for creditors when a debtor fraudulently transfers property with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the creditor.
  • HB 14-1335 – Concerning Campaign Contribution Limits that are Applicable to Candidate Committees for Candidates who are not Affiliated with a Major Political Party, by Rep. Dominick Moreno and Sen. Matt Jones. The bill allows write-in, unaffiliated, or minor party candidates to accept contributions up to the aggregate contribute limit for the election cycle.
  • HB 14-1342 – Concerning Transfers of Moneys Related to Capital Construction, by the Joint Budget Committee. The bill makes three transfers to the capital construction fund in fiscal year 2014-15.

For a list of Governor Hickenlooper’s legislative decisions, click here.

HB 14-1302: Providing Additional Judicial Remedy for Creditors When Debtor Fraudulently Transfers Property

On March 4, 2014, Rep. John Buckner and Sen. Mike Johnston introduced HB 14-1302 – Concerning the Addition of a Judgment Against a Debtor or Transferee who Acts with Actual Intent as an Available Remedy for a Creditor in a Fraudulent Transfer Action. This summary is published here courtesy of the Colorado Bar Association’s e-Legislative Report.

The bill allows a creditor to seek a judgment in a fraudulent transfer action for 1.5 times the value of the asset transferred or for 1.5 times the amount necessary to satisfy the creditor’s claim, whichever is less, together with the creditor’s actual costs, against any debtor or transferee who acts with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud a creditor, either alone or in conspiracy with another. The bill also specifies that a judgment may not be entered against a person other than the debtor unless that person also acts with wrongful intent and that a judgment may not be entered unless a court of competent jurisdiction enters or has entered a judgment or order establishing the validity of the creditor’s claim against the debtor.

The bill has passed 3rd Reading in both the House and Senate and is headed to the governor’s desk for action.

e-Legislative Report: April 7, 2014

CBA Legislative Policy Committee

For readers who are new to CBA legislative activity, the Legislative Policy Committee (LPC) is the CBA’s legislative policy-making arm during the legislative session. The LPC meets weekly during the legislative session to determine CBA positions on requests from the various sections and committees of the Bar Association.

The LPC did not meet on Friday, April 4.

At the Capitol—Week of March 31

A scorecard of the committee and floor work follows.

In the House

Monday, March 31

No bills were heard on 3rd reading.

Tuesday, April 1

Passed 3rd Reading:

  • HB 14-1315. Concerning the enactment of certain model acts adopted by the national association of insurance commissioners, and, in connection therewith, enacting the credit for reinsurance model act and the portion of the insurer receivership model act that governs netting agreements. Vote: 65 yes and 0 no.
  • HB 14-1313. Concerning a requirement that the owner of a pet animal provide a valid rabies vaccination certificate prior to registering the animal with a county. Vote: 40 yes and 25 no.
  • HB 14-1045. Concerning the continuation of the breast and cervical cancer prevention and treatment program, and, in connection therewith, making an appropriation. Vote: 50 yes and 15 no.
  • HB 14-1281. Concerning the allowance for terminally ill patients to have access to investigational products that have not been approved by the federal food and drug administration that other patients have access to when they participate in clinical trials. Vote: 65 yes and 0 no.
  • HB 14-1302. Concerning the addition of a judgment against a debtor or transferee who acts with actual intent as an available remedy for a creditor in a fraudulent transfer action. Vote: 65 yes and 0 no.

Wednesday, April 2

No bills were heard on 3rd reading.

Thursday, April 3

Passed 3rd Reading:

  • SB 14-135. Concerning the repeal of certain provisions concerning the purchasing of firearms in states that are contiguous to Colorado. Vote: 61 yes, 1 no, and 3 excused.

Friday, April 4

Passed on 3rd Reading:

  • SB 14-103. Concerning the phase-out of the sale of certain low efficiency plumbing fixtures. Vote: 35 yes, 28 no, and 2 excused.
  • HB 14-1001. Concerning the creation of a property tax reimbursement for a taxpayer that owes property tax on property that has been destroyed by a natural cause, and, in connection therewith, making and reducing appropriations. Vote: 46 yes, 17 no, and 2 excused.

In the Senate

Monday, March 31

Passed on 3rd Reading:

  • HB 14-1195. Concerning the diversion of revenue collected by the division of insurance to cash funds. Vote: 35 yes and 0 no.

Tuesday, April 1

Passed on 3rd Reading:

  • SB 14-163. Concerning clarifying changes to provisions related to the sentencing of persons convicted of drug crimes. Vote: 33 yes, 0 no, and 2 excused.
  • SB 14-160. Concerning removing limitations on a transitional living program for a person with a brain injury. Vote: 33 yes, 0 no, and 2 excused.
  • HB 14-1141. Concerning the confidentiality of social security numbers under statutes protecting the privacy of individuals. Vote: 33 yes, 0 no, and 2 excused.

Wednesday, April 2

No bills were heard on 3rd Reading.

Thursday, April 3

Passed on 3rd Reading:

  • The Senate spent numerous hours debating various 2nd Reading amendments to HB 14-1336. Concerning the provision for payment of the expenses of the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of the state of Colorado, and of its agencies and institutions, for and during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2014, except as otherwise noted—“the Budget bill.”

Friday, April 4

Passed on 3rd Reading:

  • HB 14-1282. Concerning the specification of what materials may be provided in a language other than English by an insurer to a customer. Vote: 34 yes, 0 no, and 1 excused.
  • HB 14-1336. Concerning the provision for payment of the expenses of the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of the state of Colorado, and of its agencies and institutions, for and during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2014, except as otherwise noted—“the Budget bill.” Vote: 26 yes, 8 no, and 1 excused.

Stay tuned for 10 Bills of Interest.